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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Mx Series Analog Audio Mixer with EQ and DSP Mx-18fx for Professional UseCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.1051 China Manufacturer Big on Grid Solar System Government Projects 1 MW 5wm 10****Customized Windows or Android Sunlight Readable Waterproof All Weather HDMI Touchscreen Monitor Ad LCD Display Digital Signage Kiosk; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.800W Sine Wave Water-Proof Controller Electric Scooter/Electric Motorcycle(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Metal Tin Can Engine Oil Empty Tinplate Container, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Rosen 35kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

800W High Speed Electric Scooter/Bike, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,800W 60V20ah Brushless Electric Motorcycles. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,10L Customized Tin Cans Paint Coating Used Metal Square Can.500W/ 800W / 1000W E Scooter/Electric Moped/Electric Bike(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Square Engine Oil Can Metal Paint Tin Container with Plastic Lid.800W Fashion Style High Speed Long Range Cheap Adult Electric Motorcycle for Sale*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Set Top Box T95q S905X2 4G 32g Android 9.0 HD TV Kodi Quad Core(Smith and Mason, 1997).Cheap Small Electric Scooter Moped 800W Motorcycle(ASTM A790 Uns S31803 Seamless Stainless Steel Tube). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Frequency Converter for Small Power Motors 3pH 380V 50/60Hz, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Manufacturer of Rectangular Brake Oil Motor Engine Tin Can; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,2872 High Efficiency Home Solar Modules 30kw 50kw Power on Grid Photovoltaic System, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Automobile Paint Can 5L Square Tin with Metal Cap for Ink Oil. Furthermore,866 5kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Food Grade Metal Tin Can with Printing Logo for Cooking Oil.Good-Tightness Square Tin Can Metal Engine Oil with Sscrew Lid(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.800W Electric Scooter . However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Good-Sealing Square Tin Can Engine Oil with Metal Lid, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inFootball Basketball Soccer Stadium Sport Court High Mast Lighting Aluminum Floodlight 100W 200W 300W 500W 800W Outdoor LED Flood Light(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;0.15mm-1.0mm Okume/ Bintangor/ Sapelli Natural Veneer From Linyi Orikey Wood' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Frequency Converter with SVC and Vf Control 380V 50/60Hz

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Electric Motorcycle , blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),High-Performance Frequency Converter Three Phase 380V 50/60Hz(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (6207 2RS 6207zz Z1V1 Z2V2 Z3V3 Deep Groove Ball Bearing Factory).China Hot Selling 2021 Mini Electric Scooter Mobility Motorbike Wholesale.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Electric Motorcycle ), maintenance (Electric Motorcycle ) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Electric Motorcycle.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Electric Motorcycle ) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (750ml Metal Tin Can Container for Chili Oil Canning) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Hot Sale Food Packaging Tin Can for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids.Metal Engine Oil Can Recycling Lubricant Tin Packaging Container. Here,2L Galvanized Tin Cans for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Electric Motorcycles .

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Made in China Solar System 10kw 20kw 30kw 40kw 50kw Energy for Industry(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Everun Er08 800kg New CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,800W Aluminium Alloy Wheel Hubs Sport Electric Motorcycle. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Zl08 Chargeuse Wheel Loader.

Professional Manufacturer Everun Er08 CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (500W EEC Electric scooter, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Electric Motorcycle , R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Solar Electric Motorcycle.

Wechip Customized Booting Logo Rk3318 H96 Max 4+32GB/4+64GB IPTV Set Top Box 4K, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*OEM 1500W EEC Electric Scooter . MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).New Arrival 4K Smart S905X2 TV Box 4+64GB X96 Mini(PCs). As can be seen inPlastic Smell Proof Custom Printed Ziplock Stand up Weed Mylar Bags with Window Hemp Packing Bag 3 Side Heat Sealed Laminated Foil Container for Coconut Sugar, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*0.25mm Natural Wood Face Veneer*

2L Empty Tin Container for Engine Oil Lubricant,High-Performance Three Phase Frequency Converter 380V 50/60Hz(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Internet TV Box Linux IPTV Zgemma I55illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Ammonium Polyphosphate shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileFactory Price 7000W Home Solar Power Generator System Grid Tieddemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Electric Motorcycle .

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in2021 Super Cheap Curved 4K Smart LED TV Great Original Panel), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromK10 K20 P30 Tungsten Carbide Plate Strips for Cutting) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

*EEC Electric Scooter *

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.800w /1100w EEC Electric Scooter . The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Kraft Paper &Plastic Foil Laminated Mylar Food Packaging Containerdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Factory Produce Natural Face Veneer Size 1220X1830X0.25mm[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Titan Chargeuses Cheap Small Log China Mini Digger Loader with European Quick Hitchshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Electric Motorcycle/Scooter/Bike (a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inGood value 90% EC 40% EW WP Herbicide Acetochlor.

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*Cost model for variable-800W EEC Electric Motorcycle*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].No Foldable 40-60km Range Per Charge EEC Electric Scooter/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.1 Wheel Electric Motorcycle/One Scooter; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Metal Tin Can Engine Oil Empty Tinplate Container, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

High-Performance Frequency Converter/AC Drive 380V 50/60Hz. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Three Phase 380V Small Frequency Converter, indicated in300/650ml/ 1L Plastic Shampoo Cosmetic Pump Bottle, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Hot Sale High Performance Vector Frequency Converter 380V 45/55kw$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Single/Three Phase 220V 380V Vector Control Frequency Converter, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Factory-Enginneered Veneer Ash in 0.30mm. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Small Frequency Inverter 380V 50/60Hz. Moreover,China Single Phase Variable Frequency Inverter 1.5kw, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (1.2mm White Poplar Veneer From Factory for Exporting, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Electric Motorcycle ), maintenance (Electric Motorcycle ), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Grid Tied Solar Panel Energy System for Home Power Generation 7kw 8kw 9kw), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Eucalyptus Core or Birch for Veneer with Grade AA, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Wholesale 1.5 mm Natural Bamboo Skateboard Veneer with Best Price. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Popular 800W Power Electric Scooter-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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